Vulnerable areas characterised according to natural hazards (all atmospheric, hydrologic, seismic, volcanic and wildfire phenomena that, because of their location, severity, and frequency, have the potential to seriously affect society), e.g. floods, landslides and subsidence, avalanches, forest fires, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions.
Natural risk zones are zones where natural hazards areas intersect with highly populated areas and/or areas of particular environmental/ cultural/ economic value.
To define or pre-estimate a Risk following parameter are necessary: potential hazard, probability of its occurrence and vulnerability of the exposed populations and of the environmental, cultural and economic assets in a specific zone.
Natural hazards can be classified by origin namely: geological, hydro-meteorological or biological. Hazardous events can vary in magnitude or intensity, frequency, duration, area of extent, speed of onset, spatial dispersion and temporal spacing. Specific examples for different types of hazard were identified: Floods (calculation of flood impact, reporting and flood hazard/risk mapping), Risk Management Scenario (an example from a national perspective), Landslides (hazard mapping, vulnerability assessment and risk assessment), Forest fires (danger, vulnerability and risk mapping) and Earthquake insurance.
Following four key spatial object types that are modelled, Hazard area, Observed event, Risk zone and Exposed element.