Drying is thermal removal of liquid moisture (not chemically bound) from a material. Drying is usually accomplished by contacting the moist solids with hot combustion gases generated by burning fossil fuels. In some cases, heat for drying can be provided by hot air or inert gas that has been indirectly heated. The amount of heat required for a given drying operation corresponds to the heat required to vaporize the liquid moisture, the heat required to raise the temperature of the products (dry solids and water vapor) to the final drying temperature, and heat required to offset radiant heat losses. Usually the drying temperature is set at a nominal value above the boiling point of water, often about 120°C. In special cases, such as in the drying of certain water-soluble salts, higher drying temperatures are required. In salt drying, the feed moisture is saturated with dissolved salts, which alters the boiling point and requires higher drying temperatures. Drying of moist solids is carried out in several types of industrial dryers, including rotary dryers, fluidized bed dryers, and flash dryers. Another type of drying, called spray drying, is carried out when the material to be dried is completely dissolved in aqueous solution. The solution is sprayed (usually through a specially designed nozzle) into a heated chamber and as the water is evaporated, solids crystallize. The water vapor is exhausted from the dryer, and dry solids are collected, usually in a conical section of the dryer. Solid material produced from a spray dryer often has special particle size and shape characteristics, which may be controlled by the concentration of dissolved material in the solution, and the design of the atomizing spray nozzle.