INSPIRE Knowledge Base

Examples of Data Transformation


This self-learning module provides an example of transformation of a source dataset into a dataset compliant to the technical requirements of the applicable Implementing Rules and Technical Guidelines of INSPIRE.

It shows, step by step, an schema transformation process, starting from the analysis of the source dataset (consisting of a shapefile of the Italian Municipalities downloaded from the Italian Statistical Office website) and of its data model and the study of the applicable INSPIRE Data Specification on Administrative Units.

The module shows the use of the mapping table as useful tool to document the mapping process between the elements of the source dataset and the INSPIRE data model elements and explains how to identify and solve some common mapping problems.

Through the use of a selected software (HALE), the transformation process is practically explained, showing also the “live” validation of the mapping being performed against the relevant INSPIRE application schema. At the end, a demonstration is given of how to generate a harmonized GML dataset.


The module consists of six units as follows:

  1. Analysis of the source data model
  2. Identification and analysis of the target data model
  3. Use of the matching table
  4. Analysis and solution of the matching problems
  5. Execution of the transformation
  6. Export of the transformed data
Learning outcomes: 

After completion of the module, the participant will be able to identify and understand the source and target data models, to fill in a matching table, to perform a data transformation from a non-harmonized source dataset into aa harmonized one and to export a harmonized GML dataset.

Intended Audience: 

The module targeting GIS and ICT professionals aiming to harmonize their datasets against INSPIRE Data Specifications.


Basic knowledge of INSPIRE.

Training module “Procedures for Data and Metadata Harmonisation”. 

Training format: 

PDF documents, presentation with voice, exercises. The module is a self-learning module.


Expected Workload: 
2 hours

Earlier versions of this trainingThis module havehas been developed within the context of the smeSpire project, 2014 (

It was updated in January 2018.


Authors: Giacomo Martirano, Fabio Vinci, Stefania Morrone (EPSILON ITALIA). The material is provided under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike License (

2. Advanced technical Modules